Thomas
von der Ohe

Co-Founder, CEO

WHAT DRIVES ME

You come across an opportunity to positively impact societies around the globe maybe once in your lifetime. An opportunity to truly make a difference. Our unique approach to autonomous driving gives us this chance: redefining how people move in a better way. Building and shipping a product with this great team is what drives me day and night.

BACKGROUND

Launched Zoox’ first self-driving vehicle on public streets as leading Technical Program Manager in Silicon Valley, launched Amazon’s first Echo as leading Technical Program Manager on Device Software, Founded two (funded) mobility companies. M. Sc. Management Science and Engineering, Stanford University.

Fabrizio
Scelsi

Co-Founder, CTO

WHAT DRIVES ME

Building products together with an amazing team based on cutting-edge technology to serve a greater purpose and solve problems – for the people, for our planet.

BACKGROUND

Manager of an engineering team in Silicon Valley to build autonomous shuttles, built teams and various mobility products: electric race cars, e-motorcycles, light electric vehicles, electric passenger vehicles, including one of the most successful electric delivery vehicles in Germany. RWTH Aachen, Imperial College London.

Bogdan
Djukic

Co-founder, VP Engineering & Teledrive Experience

WHAT DRIVES ME

Vay is aiming to launch the first vehicle without a safety driver on public roads in Europe. This involves exciting engineering challenges, many of which have never been worked on before, ranging from autonomous vehicle technology, cybersecurity, backend, machine learning and safety-critical SW. Coming up with engineering solutions to these topics is something that I’m super excited to work on at Vay.

BACKGROUND

Team Lead at Microsoft, Senior Software Engineer at Skype. M. Sc. in Computer Science from Belgrade University.

Mariona
Bosch

VP Programs and Engineering Operations

WHAT DRIVES ME

Working closely with people from different cultures and professional backgrounds (hardware, software, operations, etc.) gives me the chance to learn new ways of approaching projects, structuring teams, and setting up processes every day. The results of this incredible teamwork are hugely rewarding, and visible in each step of our product.

BACKGROUND

Part of the management circle at AUDI AG, responsible for the implementation of prototypes at early development stages of new products (innovation vehicles, concept and pre-series vehicles, show cars, design models, testing single parts, PoCs, 3D-printing)

Hans-Leo
Ross

Safety Advisor

WHAT DRIVES ME

All my professional life I have been working for the protection and safety of people and the environment. I want to further provide safe and user-friendly automation systems for our future mobility needs.

BACKGROUND

25+ years experience in system safety at Conti., Mando, Bosch. Led the VDA working group in Germany to create ISO 26262 and influenced worldwide safety standardization. Author of several text books on functional safety.

Justin
Spratt

CBO - Business & Corporate Development

WHAT DRIVES ME

What drives me is to work on goals that have a big impact on society. Additionally, I wanted to work with the smartest and most innovative people in the tech world. That’s better at Vay than any other company I’ve spoken to recently.

BACKGROUND

Responsible for global strategic partnerships at Uber, where he focused on deals with automotive OEMs, vehicle fleet operators, vehicle battery technology companies and electrification infrastructure providers. Was CEO and chief growth officer at Quirk. Began his professional life at Morgan Stanley as a fixed income trader after studying economics and finance. Built the first startup incubator in Africa in 2002 and has been mentoring founders of technology startups for over ten years. He is an angel investor in software technology and holds board positions in some of these companies.

Anja
Rechsteiner

Director of Communications

WHAT DRIVES ME

What drives me is to start something from scratch and use all my experience to find the best way to communicate our exciting story. I believe my work can have an impact on how people feel about more sustainable transportation options.

BACKGROUND

Worked for 15 years in leading communication agencies such as fischerAppelt and Ketchum in Germany and the UK for various brands and companies from FMCG to travel to mobility. Holds an MBA in Communication & Leadership from Quadriga University as well as a Master degree in History, Sociology and Media & Art Studies from University of Constance.

Caleb
Varner

US General Manager

WHAT DRIVES ME

We’re close to letting users experience the Vay Magic for the first time in Las Vegas and I know that they are going to find it a compelling mix of great value powered by a super slick in-app experience. It’s awesome to have the opportunity to take this piece of underlying tech (remote driving) and build an experience around it that users will use, love and tell their friends about.

BACKGROUND

Co-founded and served as the Global General Manager of Uber Rent & Valet, a new mobility investment by Uber. Lead the Global Vehicles team at Uber, overseeing critical planning and P&L responsibilities. Built Uber’s vehicles business in Latin America from the ground and managed the customer-facing financial services business across Sub-Saharan Africa. Lead international financial services strategy engagements with the Boston Consulting Group for John Deere, focusing on regions like Brazil, Africa, and India. Owns a Masters of Business Administration of Duke University.

David
Gossow

Senior Principal Software Engineer

WHAT DRIVES ME

After having worked in autonomous robotics research for a long time in the Silicon Valley, I am thrilled to be working at a company that is finally bringing this technology into people’s everyday lives.

BACKGROUND

Tech Lead at Google Tango in Mountain View, Research Engineer at Willow Garage, yoga instructor since 2018.

Johanna
Loomis

Lead Industrial Designer

WHAT DRIVES ME

What drives me at Vay is the enthusiasm and passion for a vision that is embedded in the company culture, and at the same time the strict discipline in its implementation.

BACKGROUND

Industrial Product Design Lead at TEAMS DESIGN GmbH for over six years, started as a Trainee in Shanghai City. Worked as Industrial and Product Designer at LOTHAR BOHM ASSOCIATES LIMITED, Lutz Herrmann Design, Indeed Innovation and Werksdesign.

Vladimir
Bilonenko

Director of Software Engineering

WHAT DRIVES ME

Helping engineers to do their best and most important work. Elegance in software. Bringing ideas from books to real life and from one domain to another. Going from A to B fast.

BACKGROUND

Software Generalist. Maps and Mobility Geek (Lon, Lat not Lat, Lon). High Load at Yandex, Geo Analytics and Last Mile at HERE Maps, Mobility Platform at Daimler. Conway’s Law Enthusiast.

ALINA
PRESTI

Teledriver

WHAT DRIVES ME

A car enthusiast, driven by cars, driving and technology.

BACKGROUND

Nursery school teacher. Driver at Skoda’s start-up Caredriver.

Stefano
Buzzanca

Head of Operations

WHAT DRIVES ME

What drives me at Vay is the magic. That daily feeling that every small step forward, every single improvement, every small success is a step towards the final goal: to create something unique that will change the lives of many.

BACKGROUND

His 20+ years of experience in various mobility companies make him a great leader and KPI driven operator at Vay. Launched and ran various mobility services in 16+ cities, focused on free-floating car-sharing.

Safety First? The Role of Cybersecurity at Vay

By Mehdi Asgari, Senior Engineering Manager for IT, Security, and Reliability Engineering

If you drive a car that’s been produced in the past 5–6 years, chances are it’s equipped with many smart technologies and connectivity features; It could update its software wirelessly and automatically. It might have some advanced safety features like automatic parking, or it may be able to control and steer itself under certain conditions. It might let you control some of its features remotely via a mobile app. It may support app installation. The list goes on and on.

As the cars get smarter and more feature-packed, they also present new and complex challenges for manufacturers and regulators from a physical and cyber threat perspective.

I am Mehdi Asgari, Senior Engineering Manager for IT, Security, and Reliability Engineering at Vay. In this article, I will introduce the concept of cybersecurity in the automotive context, and show how it’s different from safety. You don’t need to be a safety or security expert to read the post, and I’ll avoid discussing complex technical topics.

Mehdi Asgari, Senior Engineering Manager for IT, Security, and Reliability Engineering
Mehdi Asgari, Senior Engineering Manager for IT, Security, and Reliability Engineering

Safety and (cyber)security are two different domains, yet many people confuse the two. The fact that many languages have one word for both concepts can contribute to the confusion. In German, both are called “Sicherheit”. In Russian, they are called “безопасность”. Yet there are languages like English and Persian which have unique words for each. Another contributing factor is how different industries used to look at these concepts: many engineers working in tech and IT are not exposed to the concept of safety, as for example there’s no physical harm possible to the users of an online retail shop or a classic SaaS. And on the other hand, safety is a concept more known to people working in certain industries (like automotive) that have the potential to cause harm or injuries, while traditionally cybersecurity was not considered in these industries at all! In fact, the first edition of the ISO 26262 standard (Road Vehicles – Functional Safety) was released in 2011, while the first version of ISO 21434 (Road vehicles – Cybersecurity engineering) was published a decade later, in 2021. 

So depending on which sector you work in, you may have heard of one or both, but there’s still a confusion lingering in the air as to how exactly these two concepts are different.

Note 1: although my focus in this post is on the automotive industry, you should keep in mind that there are many other industries that either have safety standards, or consider safety very seriously in various stages of product design, development, and operations (Aerospace, railway, industrial automation, medical devices and the energy sector are just a few)

Note 2: the main audience of this document are people who are not experts at security, so I have oversimplified the concepts.

Let’s first have a look at the definitions:

  • Safety in automotive systems is focused on preventing physical harm or injury to drivers, passengers, and pedestrians, via detecting and preventing collisions or reducing the severity of an impact. Examples of modern safety features include automated braking, lane-keep assistance, blind-spot detection, and adaptive cruise control.
  • (Cyber)Security was not a big deal in the automotive industry in the past. Actually, the word “security” in the automotive context could have had different meanings (e.g. securing against unauthorized physical access to a car, theft-protection, etc.). Cars were not exposed to the outside world like they are today. But things have changed now, and it’s more probable for a car to get “hacked”. That could mean many things: from stealing a car via exploiting vulnerabilities in how the key fob communicates to the car, to stealing private user data stored on the vehicle. So security now is also focused on preventing these attacks.

Safety and cybersecurity are both critical considerations at Vay. Both involve protecting against potential hazards/threats that could cause harm to drivers, passengers, and pedestrians, but they differ in the nature of the threat and the measures used to address it.

As it’s obvious in the above definitions, safety usually deals with hazards (like collisions) and malfunctioning components. Most of the time, these are not directly caused by malicious people. On the other hand, security is more concerned with risks caused by malicious activities. Traditional physical security would focus on protections against breach and theft. Cybersecurity focuses on protecting against data theft, remote vehicle take-over, attacks against car sensors, attacks against communication network, etc.

One of the many principles used at Vay is “Security by Design”. This means building in cybersecurity measures from the beginning, rather than adding them as an afterthought.

We also need to understand the threats we’re exposed to, and the risks caused by them, to be able to protect against them.

People working in the FuSa (short for Functional Safety) and Cybersecurity perform risk assessments on new product features to make sure they have a good understanding and assessment of known issues/threats and are also prepared to tackle unknown threats and faults. They call this process differently, though: HARA and TARA, respectively. TARA stands for Threat Analysis and Risk Assessment. This process begins with identifying the assets. Asset could be any component or system used in the product. It could be a virtual thing (like a piece of code) or a physical component, like a sensor or computing hardware.

In this process, we look at the scenarios that could pose a risk to each asset, and then we calculate the risk for each scenario. There are different methodologies and models that could be used for this purpose, and companies are free to choose their own. A risk could be low, medium, high or critical. Again, this is not a must. You’re free to adjust these for your own use cases, but we’ll stick to these for the sake of simplicity. 

Now, the conscious reader may ask how can we classify a specific risk as low or high. Who could argue that? To calculate a risk value, we usually look at 2 parameters: 

  • Feasibility: how likely is it for this threat scenario to actually happen.
  • Impact: what would be the severity of this specific attack.

Both these factors are again decided based on other parameters. And here’s where safety comes into play again: one way to measure the overall impact value is to look at the impact on 4 parameters: Safety, Financial, Operational and Privacy (SFOP for short). So a cybersecurity attack might have a safety impact.

Now, let’s get back to where we left off: after we have a final risk value, we need to do something about it. There are 4 common decisions that could be made about a risk:

  1. Mitigation: this is the most common approach, which is to use countermeasures against the threat we’re analyzing.
  2. Accept: simply accept the risk and do nothing.
  3. Delegate: transfer the responsibility to another entity (e.g. by using insurance)
  4. Avoid: do something to avoid the risk altogether.

The first two are more common. When we mitigate a risk, we then define a security goal; The list of security goals is an output of TARA. A security goal is very high level. For example, you might have a goal to make sure the integrity of the code and data stored on your ECU is ensured. Now you need to break it down to multiple security requirements that are more understandable and concrete for the various engineering teams to understand and implement. 

In case you accept a risk, you don’t need to define a security goal for it. Instead, you define a security claim (you’re claiming that this specific risk can be tolerated and accepted). The list of claims could be another output of the TARA.

You might be familiar with the V Model used in software development lifecycle or in functional safety; There’s a similar concept used in cybersecurity. Look at the simplified picture below; the left leg of the V starts with risk assessment, and goes into detail (defining a high-level concept, defining technical security requirements) and then the right leg verifies and validates (tests) the requirements and goals defined in the left leg. 

So far, I focused on the left leg, which is analyzing the threats and assessing the risks, and coming up with requirements. Another equally important part of the security is the whole security tests (validation tests, penetration tests, etc.) which are represented in the right leg of the V shape above. Here, we validate the requirements that we’ve defined, by testing them to make sure they’re properly implemented.

There are many different sorts of manual and automated security tests, done in various different intervals, or based on some external triggers. Examples of security tests done in Vay:

  1. Requirements validation
  2. Release tests (this could have many tests in common with #1)
  3. Security scanners (testing the code to find security flaws)
  4. Security penetration tests
  5. Hardware security tests, to find issues in the hardware we use
  6. Attack simulations: to simulate an exact attack on our product or infrastructure, as defined in our TARA.

Here are 2 photos of hardware and wireless security tests.


I hope you’ve learned something about the difference between safety and cybersecurity. 
I will dive deeper into some of these topics, like advanced security tests, in a follow-up article.
Here are additional resources to read about these topics:

  1. ENISA’s “Good Practices for Security of Smart Cars”
    https://www.enisa.europa.eu/publications/smart-cars
  2. ISO 21434 standard text (you have to purchase it)
    https://www.iso.org/standard/70918.html
  3. ASRG’s YouTube channel
    https://www.youtube.com/@automotivesecurityresearch1613/videos

Book: Building Secure Cars
https://www.amazon.de/-/en/Dennis-Kengo-Oka/dp/111971074X/

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